As we all know, most of the precision parts are produced by CNC lathes, and there are many things that need to be paid attention to in the CNC lathe processing. Today, I will introduce some operating skills to you.
1. Programming skills for CNC lathe processing
Most powerful companies have high requirements for the precision of processed parts. Therefore, the following items need to be considered when programming the CNC lathe:
1. Processing sequence of parts:
Drill first and then flat end (also to avoid shrinkage when drilling);
Rough turning first, then fine turning (this is to ensure the precision of parts);
The first processing gap is large, and the final processing gap is small (it is to ensure that the surface layer of small tolerance specifications is not scratched and to avoid component deformation).
2. Determine the correct rotation speed, cutting speed and depth of cut according to the hardness of the material:
1) The carbon steel is made of high speed, high cutting speed and large depth of cut. Such as: 1Gr11, select S1600, F0.2, and cut depth 2mm;
2) Low speed, low cutting speed and small depth of cut are selected for die steel. Such as: GH4033, select S800, F0.08, and cut depth 0.5mm;
3) Low speed, high cutting speed and small depth of cut are selected for titanium. Such as: Ti6, select S400, F0.2, and cut depth 0.3mm. Take the processing of a certain part as an example: the material is K414, which is an extra-hard material. After several experiments, it is finally determined to be S360, F0.1, and a depth of cut 0.2 before the standard parts can be processed.
2. Knife setting skills
Tool setting in CNC lathe processing includes tool setting with tool setting instrument and direct tool setting. First make sure that the center of the right end of the part is the tool setting point, and set it to the zero point. Every CNC blade that must be used is set to the center of the right end of the part as the zero point; the CNC blade touches the right end and enter Z0 and click to measure. The tool compensation value of the tool compensation value will automatically record the measured mark value, which means that the Z-axis tool setting is done, and the X tool setting is a trial cutting tool setting. The outer circle of the tool is less than the outer circle of the tool is measured. Value (such as x is 20mm) input x20, click Measure, the tool compensation value will automatically record the measured value, at this time the x axis is also aligned; this tool setting method, even if the CNC lathe is turned off, the power will still be restarted. The tool setting value will not be changed, and it is suitable for mass production to manufacture the same parts for a long time. During the period, the lathe does not need to be re-calibrated.
3. CNC lathe processing and debugging skills
After programming the parts, the tool must be tested and debugged. In order to prevent errors in the program and tool setting errors, which may lead to machine collision safety incidents, we should first perform idle stroke simulation processing. In the coordinate system, the tool is moved to the right by 2-3 times the total length of the part; then the simulation processing is started. After the simulation processing is successful, the program and tool setting are confirmed, and then the parts are processed. The first CNC lathe processing is successful Then, first self-inspect to confirm that the standard is met, and then find a full-time inspection and check. After the full-time inspection confirms that the standard is met, the calibration is completed.
4. complete the processing of parts
After the first tool radius compensation is successful, the parts will be mass-produced, but the first sample does not necessarily meet the standard for the entire batch of parts, because during the processing, the CNC blade will be damaged due to the difference in processing materials, The processing material is soft, the tool damage is small, and the processing material is hard and the tool is damaged quickly. Therefore, in the processing process, it is necessary to check frequently to increase and reduce the tool compensation value in time to ensure that the parts meet the standards.
Take a certain part as an example, the processing material is K414, and the processing length is 180mm. Due to the extremely hard material, the CNC blade is damaged very quickly during processing. From the starting point to the end point, the damage to the CNC blade will definitely cause a slight degree of 10-20mm. Therefore, we need to artificially add 10-20mm in the program to ensure that the parts meet the standards.
The operation skills of CNC lathe processing is a process from shallow to deep, and it cannot be accomplished overnight. This is built on mastering the basic operations of CNC lathes, basic precision machining knowledge and basic programming knowledge. Numerical control lathe processing and operating skills are not static. This is an organic combination that requires the operator to make full use of imagination and practical ability, and is a labor with innovative ability.